Technical Issues - FilmStar News 2011

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January 10    FilmStar Database Capacity

Users who take advantage of the FilmStar Database (video) report many benefits in their abilities to effectively deal with measured spectra.

A principle benefit is the ability to store thousands of spectra in a single file. As records are added, however, databases grow to hundreds of megabytes. While capacity is virtually unlimited, it would seem that performance must eventually suffer.

As a test we created a 10K records database with FilmStar DESIGN and BASIC macro FM8_SaveSpectra.bas (included in the FilmStar Database installer).

The resulting Spectra_8.fp7 file size was 279MB. In our example there were 401 data points in each spectrum (380-780 x 1nm).

After deleting the graphic and compacting the database, the size was reduced to 36MB. Clearly, a graphic bloats file size, but does it affect usability? Deleting 9000 records from the 279MB file required ~17 min; the same operation in the 36MB file required ~4 min. While deleting records is not a normal operation (in fact should not be permitted), the example indicates that file maintenance operations are slowed by file size.

Most importantly, the speed of operations Sort and Find could not be distinguished between the 279MB and 36MB versions. Finding records according to CIE ranges was nearly instant in both cases. This leads us to conclude that there is no advantage in deleting the graphic image.

2. A new blank database can be created from an existing database without deleting records. Click File..Save a Copy As and select clone (no records).

10K Records 279MB

10K Records 36MB

February 9    Designing for FWD and REV Light Incidence
Revised 02 Jan 2018

A user recently asked whether it is possible to optimize coatings for both forward and reverse light incidence. A typical application is architectural windows.

1. In such cases the design must include a massive layer. In the Film Indices dialog AIR=1, SUB=1 and the substrate is defined as a massive layer. Search for 'Massive' in DESIGN's help to refresh your memory. Multiple massive layers with coatings on some or all surfaces are supported.

2. Reverse reflectance targets (% R Rev) are available in Optimization Targets, but they may be of limited use in architectural coatings which are better specified by integrated criteria.

3. The FilmStar Workbook provides means to evalulate and optimize designs according to complex multiple criteria. One might want to maximize CIE Y in transmittance while constraining reflected color. There may be thermal considerations such as absorptance, emittance. Our first task is to compute required values (%R, %T, CIE, etc.) with light incident from two directions.

In example, column B displays Side 1 Fwd reflectance, D shows Side 2 Rev reflectance. Copy ReverseCIE.bas to c:\Winfilm\Basic32 and ReverseCIE.vts to c:\Winfilm\Workbook. Datamarker cell $A$3 defines the upper left corner of the data columns. These and other special cells are discussed in DESIGN help under Defined Names. Starting with ReverseCIE.faw, click <Ctrl+O> to set Ave %R Fwd ($G$10) to 30% with equal forward and reverse CIE color coordinates.

Note how the command in Macro cell $E$1 automatically executes during each iteration. As shown below, the macro rewrites spectral values (450-750 x 10 nm) and computes color coordinates.

4. It is possible to replace simple BASIC programs with a single line basexec command as follows:

basexec Calculate|GetCie x!, y!, yy!|WbSetNum "$G$4", x!|
WbSetNum "$G$5", y!|DesignReverse|Calculate|GetCie x!, y!, yy!|
WbSetNum "$G$7", x!|WbSetNum "$G$8", y!|DesignReverse;

5. The Workbook might be the most powerful underutilized feature in FilmStar. Please contact FTG if you require an online tutorial or if you would like us to set up the Workbook and BASIC macro for you. This topic is covered in short course Maximizing FilmStar.

February 14    FilmStar Hidden Workbook

The FilmStar Workbook can be opened as a hidden object in DESIGN and MEASURE. This powerful but obscure capability automates Workbook calculations. It is especially useful in MEASURE QA procedures because it helps eliminates the possibility of modifying measured data.

The example below utilizes QCBBAR.xls included in the FilmStar installation. The hidden Workbook is opened in DESIGN or MEASURE BASIC by WsOpenHidden. The complete path name is required. QCBBAR.xls expects data in the range 450-750 x 10 nm.

Sub Main
    WbOpenHidden "C:\Winfilm\Workbook\QCBBAR.xls"
    yAve! = WbGetNum("$E$5"): yMax! = WbGetNum("$E$6")  'Values
    Pass$ = WbGetText("$E$8")    ' TRUE or FALSE
    s$ = "Average: " & Format$(yAve,"0.00") & "%   Maximum: " _
        & Format$(yMax,"0.00") & "%"
    If Pass$ = "TRUE" Then t$ = "PASSED" Else t$ = "FAILED"
    MsgBox s$, vbOkOnly, "BBAR 450-750 nm " & t$
    WbCloseAll   'Important
End Sub


Why not calculate average and maximum in FilmStar BASIC? Typically these require For...Next loops in BASIC but only simple functions in the Workbook. Simplification is even more profound for calculations requiring multiple spectra, weighting functions, etc.

Since Workbook models utilize a fixed number of data rows, care must be taken to ensure that the model matches the wavelength range. As a simpler but less flexible alternative, MEASURE BASIC Sub AveCalc returns min, max and average values independent of the number of data points.

February 22    MEASURE Spectra Backup Recorder
Updated April 9, 2015 (2.51.1515)

Ever forget to save a measured curve and then had to re-scan? The Spectra Backup Recorder addresses this and similar issues by auto-saving spectra.

In the Main Menu check Spectra...Auto Backup or Spectra... Record to back up the current sample spectrum. Recorder Window activates the Recorder without saving data. When you exit the Recorder previous data is restored.

Comments are entered/edited by selecting a row and clicking Edit... Comment or by right-clicking a row. Check Auto Comment to automatically prompt for comment. Left-click or scroll to open spectra.

Highlight rows and press Delete to delete one or more entries. File menu commands also delete entries. Entries are saved when the Recorder is closed. The Recorder dialog can be sized and positioned. Spectra are stored in C:\Winfilm\SpcCache. In this example we measured HESA-GLAS (Notz Plastics AG) color filters with an Ocean Optics USB2000.  Click File.. Options.. Consolidate to renumber files, thereby reducing record count. Should the Recorder listing become out-of-sync with spectra (*.spc) in SpcCache, click File... Delete All Rows to reinitialize. Click File.. Options.. Settings to adjust Recorder capabilities; each check box includes tooltip text explaining its action.

For QA procedures running under FilmStar BASIC, Sub DataBackup(Optional Comment$) provides another way to add spectra to the Recorder. This works even when Spectra... Auto Backup is unchecked.

Alternative recording technique: with Auto Backup off, add the following to the 'After Sample' Scan Macro:

DataBackup "Scan Method " & FileName$(2, False)

Test data provides means to test and verify Recorder operation. Note changes in SpcCache\*.spc and in Records.txt. Delete rows and observe the consequences of File.. Options.. Consolidate. The following BASIC program inserts test data in the Recorder:

Sub Main         ' TEST MODE ON!!
    Dim i%
    For i = 1 To 100
        Scan     ' Sample mode
        DataBackup "Test scan A-" & CStr(i)
        Wait 1   ' Helps verify sort algorithm
    Next i
End Sub

March 7    File List Update

FilmStar File List dialogs, enabled by checking Display and save file descriptions in File.. Configuration.. Preferences, have been updated with new Find and enhanced Sort capabilities. This is especially useful for long-time FilmStar users who continue to save designs and other files in 8.3 format.

A detailed discussion of the various FilmStar file Open/Save options can be found here.

March 9    Office 2010 Compatibilty

Major problem with the pre-installed 'Click-to-Run'
version of Office 2010; fortunately there is a fix.

We have tested Office 2010 and found a problem for FilmStar users who use Microsoft Office programs like Excel or Word via FilmStar BASIC. When running FilmStar BASIC test program

c:\Winfilm\Basic32\Calculate in Excel.bas

with Excel 2010 for the first time you get an error due to a bad Object Library reference. You then need to click Edit.. References, remove the bad reference and add a reference to the new Excel 14.0 Object Library as shown below.

FilmStar BASIC Edit...References

As shown at the right (64-bit Win 7), everything then works fine. Re-saving the .bas file stores the new Object Library reference.

But if you've installed the Click-to-Run version you will discover that the Excel Object Library is inaccessible!
Microsoft has placed Office in virtual directory Q: (or R:) which cannot be opened. You need to remove Click-to-Run and install a regular version (download or optical media). If you've already activated 'Click-to-Run' Office click here for instructions on replacing it with an MSI version.

Conversely, Excel workbook c:\Winfilm\Excel 97\Run DESIGN.xls ran fine after re-establishing the reference to FtgDesign1 in VBA Tools.. References. (In this case there is no problem with the Click-to-Run version.) Finally, anyone who has developed Excel Workbooks using OCX controls or 32-bit DLL's must install the 32-bit version of Microsoft Office 2010. Click here for further information.

Unsure how this all works but suspect that FilmStar-Office compatibility might be useful? Contact FTG Software for an online demonstration.

April 1    Multiple Instances (Sessions)

FilmStar programs allow multiple instances (sessions). While working on a design you might need quick information about a second design. Rather than close DESIGN, open it again to create a second instance. What has been added today is an Instance counter as indicated in the program title by '(2)'.

There are a few cases where multiple MEASURE instances might lead to trouble, such as versions utilizing ActiveX EXE libraries (i.e. Mpe950.exe). Two features are disabled in second and subsequent instances: Design Recorder (DESIGN), Auto Backup (MEASURE).

May 16    MEASURE Enhancements

1. MEASURE/Scantraq 2.51.1150 include new FSPlot (SQPlot) refinements. Select Line Type = RGB (D65) to plot curves in RGB color. This requires that the scan range be 380-780 x5 or x1.

Note that legend line thickness matches plot line thickness. This option (also in DESIGN) is enabled in Setup...Legends by checking Simple line. When unchecked the default thick expanded line is drawn.

As requested by a user characterizing dyes, multiple peaks can be automatically labeled. Threshold and Wavelength Range settings help eliminate spurious peaks. Check Copy to copy peak values to the Windows clipboard. in Excel format. This dialog is found in FSPlot Setup...Peaks. To calculate and display peaks, it is also necessary to check View...Peaks. NOTE ADDED 26 Feb 2018: A revision adds the ability to plot peaks and/or valleys. Click here to learn more.

The plot below shows typical results.

2. MEASURE/Scantraq users will now find that the full scan range is displayed during data acquisition, even if the final range is smaller. In the above the scan range is 380-780 nm, giving a temporary range 300-800 nm while scanning before displaying the final graph range 450-650 nm.

3. When using Mpe983.exe to run Ocean Optics or similar server-based instruments, a macro is typically assigned to the <Scan> button. This resulted in a hangup when a second macro called Sub Scan.

This subtle issue has been addressed, but users might also prefer alternatives: 1. Directly call the server (not calling Sub Scan) 2. Manually click <Scan> followed by a macro (attached to a button) processing the spectrum, 3. Include processing in the Sample Scan macro tied to the <Scan> button.  It all depends on work flow; for example, option 2 makes it possible to view the spectrum before processing.

To summarize the problem, assuming that the <Scan> button is assigned to a macro (as shown above), running the following BASIC code could hang MEASURE. This has been fixed.

Sub Main
End Sub

4. Scan Method files (*.scw) saved with 2.51.1150 are not compatible with older versions.

May 23    Coating Run-Time in MONITOR

MONITOR 2.52.0400 adds the ability to estimate total coating run-time. The calculation divides Crystal (kA) values by Rate to obtain the time for each layer.

Results appear in the Runsheet (field code RunTime) and in BASIC (Property RunTime); or click Evaluate... Estimate Run-Time to get a message box.

The new information required for the calculation is entered in Setup...Parameters. Note the new Delay column where Delay is defined as rise + soak time in minutes for each material. (Scroll to the right to reveal the hidden Line Color column.)

In addition, a new Chamber tab provides means to add pumping and cooling time:


July 5   Including Date/Time in a FilmStar Report

A user automating QA procedures asked how to include the date in a FilmStar report. Our recommended procedure involved two Report Generator commands: BasRun (run a BASIC program) and BasText (insert text). The BASIC program shown below assigns date/time to string variable BasText(0).

In the Report Template <<BasText 0>> retrieves and prints the value of BasText(0). Note that the BasRun command must precede the BasText command since the value must be assigned before it can be utilized. (BasText need not be on the same line.)

Method 1: Report Template triggers saved BASIC program

Finally we see the desired result in the Report Generator:

 Date and time formats follow Windows settings

Realizing that the procedure could be simplified by including BASIC code directly in the Report Template,
we implemented new Report Generator command BasExec (DESIGN 2.61.2130, MEASURE 2.51.1160). This alternative is best suited to short programs contained entirely within Sub Main and End Sub. In that case there is no need to type 'Sub Main' and 'End Sub'. The pipe symbol '|' separates lines of code. BasExec was already a FilmStar macro command, especially useful in the Workbook.

Method 2: BASIC code embedded in Report Template

Should Windows date and time settings be unsuitable, FilmStar BASIC provides several customization functions. Replacing Cstr(Now) with the following gives 01-Jul-2011.

Format$(Day(Now),"00")&"-"& MonthName(Month(Now),True)&"-"&Cstr(Year(Now))

October 4  Immersed Beam Splitter

In his paper Design of a nonpolarizing beam splitter...(Appl Optics 31, 5345-5349, 1992) Mordechai Gilo used SUB (1.131H 1.33M 1.594L 1.33M)5 SUB [SUB 1.52, L 1.38, M 1.63, H 2.3, W0 550 nm, Angle 45] as the starting design for an all-dielectric nonpolarizing beam splitter in the range 520-580 nm. Gilo optimized the design with FilmCalc software, a previous DOS version of FilmStar. Increasing the repeat factor from 5 to 25 we obtained a 99 layer beam splitter in the range 420-650 nm.

October 12  User-Defined Functions

October 31  Measure Enhancements

1. MEASURE 2.51.1300 adds a T^2 mode supporting variable angle transmission accessories such as those manufactured by Harrick.

In this accessory two identical witness samples are mounted at opposing angles so as not to displace the sample beam. The transmittance is the square root of the measured value. The Reference measurement is performed with an empty accessory. This mode requires two identical witness samples and does not apply to the case where one optic is coated and the other uncoated.

2. Scan Macros (Setup menu) make it possible to run BASIC programs before and/or after Baseline, Reference, and Sample scans. Potential uses include prompts to check the sample compartment scanning, copying data to Excel, etc. This is an excellent solution for partial automation and an easy way to add 'what to do next' instructions in any Windows supported language.

'What to do next' prompts followed by auto copy to Excel

Macros are specified by file name. Alternatively, as shown, code can be entered directly. This is recommended for simple macros (224 characters max) with only a main subroutine. Sub Main and End Sub are automatically inserted, and the pipe character "|" can be used for line separation.

Scan macros do not work in Mpe983 server modes. Server modes for Ocean Optics, StellarNet, FTIR and other instruments already utilize BASIC macros; additional macros would only complicate matters. Scan Macros are stored with Scan Method and work in Test mode.

A note about full vs. partial automation: In full automation the entire measurement sequence is under FilmStar BASIC control; manual program operation is locked out. Full automation is initiated by a Tools menu macro command (or macro button) and supports complex sequences involving multiple scans. Partial automation is initiated by the Scan button and is intended for single scans.

November 17  Optimizing Phase Shift, Switching Axes

A user requested assistance with a design containing both T (phase in transmission) and %T targets. This raised a number of issues, some subtle, addressed below.

1. It is indeed possible to optimize phase and transmittance targets simultaneously. In the target dialog the ability to sort targets by Type (Edit.. Sort) is handy. When reviewing and editing, try clicking Edit.. Merge Cells to hide rows with adjacent identical values. This can help identify erroneous entries.

2. During optimization DESIGN must be set to plot phase. The reason is clear in the following graphs. Differences ~360 become differences ~0 when appropriate axes are selected. Assuming targets of 0 phase difference, the merit at the left is 4.1E+6 while the merit at the right is 2.3E+2.


3. Switching between phase and %T modes is simplified by saving and opening Graph Axes independently of designs and targets. This is readily accomplished in historic FILM Mode where five component files define a coating design. In FILM Archive Mode a design is defined by a single file, but components can still be opened and saved. A stop-by-step approach is given below.

a. Using FILM Archive Mode, check Augment File... in File.. Configuration.. Preferences. Then File.. Open and File.. Save As allow you open and save components of a FILM Archive. Click here for a previous discussion which includes screen shots.

b. Alternatively leave Augment File... unchecked and use shortcut key <Alt+Ctrl+G> to open Graph Axes and <Alt+Shift+G> to save them. Note that File.. Open shortcuts are disabled in the Interactor.

c. Save multiple Graph Axes files, say trns.axw and phase.axw with File.. Save As.. Graph Axes or <Alt+Shift+G>.

d. Graph axes can be now be switched with File.. Open.. Graph Axes or <Alt+Ctrl+G>.

e. Too many steps? Want to switch axes with a single click? Become a power user by assigning axes to macro buttons as shown below. There are several ways to accomplish the same, but this is the simplest.

4. Phase and transmittance can be plotted simultaneously in the Interactor. In the Interactor Options box select Mode = Design and Type = Double plot. Here Vert Axis = Automatic.

November 22  Message Boxes

Message boxes are small dialogs with OK/Cancel, Yes/No and similar buttons. FTG programs now include enhanced choices in File.. Configuration.. Preferences. (DESIGN 2.61.2231, MEASURE 2.51.1311)

Message boxes follow the appearance settings shown below. Message boxes can be centered in the screen or in the active dialog window. Dialog centering is especially recommended for wide screen monitors.

Windows Aero Theme

Windows Classic Theme

FTG Aero Theme

FTG Classic Theme

FTG message boxes are dialog-centered and can be set topmost. Topmost messages are visible even when covered by another program. This is useful in automation. During a long MEASURE scan a technician might browse the Internet or play a computer game, thereby covering MEASURE messages. If topmost is set, the message box remains visible.

To get FilmStar/Scantraq BASIC messages to be dialog-centered

  • Specify FTG style box or Windows...dialog center in File.. Configuration.. Preferences

  • Use sMsgBox and fMsgBox instead of MsgBox in BASIC.

To set topmost message box behavior in BASIC

  • Set FTG...topmost in File.. Configuration.. Preferences

  • Use sMsgBox and fMsgBox instead of MsgBox in BASIC.

  • gMsgBox (graphics message box) will also be topmost

Code for a self-closing message box with no button:

sMsgBox "Closes in five seconds", 6, "Read me!"

Code for a message box that closes in 10 seconds if <OK> not clicked:

MsgBoxTimer = 10
sMsgBox "This is an important message", vbOkOnly, "Read me!"

What's the technical difference between Windows and FTG styles? Windows boxes are built into the operating system while FTG boxes are custom dialogs. Windows buttons are in local languages while FTG buttons are in English. Our own (default) preference is Windows...dialog center.

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